Monet at the Städel Museum
Monet at the Städel Museum
and the Birth of Impressionism
11 MARCH – 21 JUNE 2015
Claude Monet, The Hôtel des Roches Noires, Trouville, 1870, Musée d’Orsay, Paris, Donated by Jacques Laroche, detail


…a country constable warns a pregnant lady. She is about to visit an Impressionist exhibition. The caricature was published in 1877 in the Parisian satirical magazine “Le Charivari”. In a humorous way it relates the horrifying effect some contemporaries ascribed Impressionist art.

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In the latter half of the 19th century Impressionism roiled the French art world. The new movement broke with the rules established by the academies. Hence the jury of the Salon frequently rejected the works by the Impressionists.

The artists’ common idea was to capture the atmosphere of a moment in a painterly way. This aim went along with a method of painting, which the public was not accustomed to.

Apart from Claude Monet, artists like Auguste Renoir, Edgar Degas, Paul Cézanne, Alfred Sisley, Édouard Manet, Camille Pissarro and Berthe Morisot were important representatives of the new movement. The group’s name was inspired by the painting “Impression, Sunrise”, which Monet presented on the occasion of their first exhibition together in 1874.

Cham, „Madame, it is not advisable to enter!“, published in: Le Charivari, 16. April 1877, Städel Museum, Frankfurt am Main

The artists of the 19th century aspired to exhibit at the Parisian Salon. This was one of their most important goals. The exhibition first took place in 1663 and initially it was reserved for members of the academy. Only at the end of the 17th century the public was admitted, too. The Salon advanced to be the central event in the art world and was recognised beyond the borders of France. He, who convinced the strict jury, could hope for the admiration of the public and financial success. In the second half of the 19th century a few of those artists rejected by the Salon – among them Édouard Manet and later the Impressionists – began to organise their own exhibitions.

Criticism of the jury’s criteria and the conditions in the exhibition grew. Numerous contemporary caricatures ridiculed the art scene. Their mockery was not merely directed at the artists and the Salon, but also at new art movements and the lack of insight of those visiting the exhibition. Only a fraction of the caricatures was concerned with the Impressionists.

Now what is this blotch? A bright moment.

Paul Bourget, 19051


Glaring sunlight immerses the clearing in a golden shimmer. No single leaves or blades of grass can be discerned. Everything melts into a sea of colour. Juxtaposed with the black shades under the trees the clearing seems to gleam. The pointy section of the sky inevitably draws the onlooker’s gaze into the distance.

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Monet depicted the road to Chailly, which cuts directly through the Forest of Fontainebleau. There are no people in the work. He created the tension in the painting purely through the composition and the way he applied the paint. This work already shows Impressionist ideas, which were to become characteristic of his style. Monet strove to capture the light of a particular place at a particular time in a way that was true to his momentary impression. Atmosphere becomes more important than the accuracy of detail.

In order to quickly capture a moment, the artists worked with broad flat brushes – a shape of paintbrush that had been introduced only recently, when the invention of the metal ferrule had made it possible.

Especially in the first half of the 19th century plein air painting was not common practice. At the time nature was often sketched on location, however, the sketches merely served as the basis of the work later to be conducted in the studio. The Impressionists were fascinated with working out of doors. This practice accommodated their interest in the representation of atmosphere and fleeting moments observed in nature. The so-called School of Barbizon had a great influence. The artists of this movement had turned their backs on traditional landscape painting and instead pursued plein air painting. The group received its name because its members frequently worked in the Forest of Fontainebleau near the village of Barbizon. The Impressionists, too, had taken to these woods, especially as they were easily accessible with the railways since 1849. In addition the invention of the collapsible metal tube in 1841 had made painting outdoors easier. It was no longer necessary to mix the paint and it was easy to transport – a crucial factor when it comes to the increasing currency of plein air painting.

Gustave Popelin, Study at the park, Le Magnet, around 1890 – 1900, Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France
Claude Monet, The Chailly Road through the Forest of Fontainebleau, 1865, Ordrupgaard, Copenhagen


Claude Monet, Jar of Peaches, ca. 1866, Galerie Neue Meister, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden

A preserving jar full of peaches is sitting on a marble plate. In front of it there are five fruit – like the jar reflected by the dark marble. At first the painting seems unassuming, but Monet touches on several phenomena, which were crucial to the development of Impressionism.

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The still live shows the fruit at different stages: as fresh fruit, preserved and reflected by the marble. To the viewer’s eye the appearance of the objects changes. Their optical appearance is influenced by the respective filter – glass, liquid and reflection.


Claude Monet, The Luncheon, 1868/69, Städel Museum, Frankfurt am Main, detail

2.31 by 1.51 meters! For an everyday scenario of his family lunching Monet chose an unusually large scale. Until then no artist had dared to present a private interior on such monumental scale. Monet accorded the representation of the private space an importance, which had been the privilege of history painting.

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History painting – traditionally the most highly regarded genre in painting – dramatically staged religious, mythological or historical themes seeking to inspire great feelings and to instil a superior moral.

In his painting “The Luncheon” Monet broke with this order of genres: composition and method of painting show that he took particular care to represent the objects on the table. Thus he composed a still live with an ordinary scene of daily life.

Unlike history painting, still lives and genre scenes were the least regarded genres of painting – and were traditionally presented on a small scale. The monumental measures of “The Luncheon” upgrades the quotidian.

Monet intended to submit “The Luncheon” to the Salon. Its size would have made it stand out in the presentation, where the art works were often presented one above the other several meters high. However, the work was rejected. In 1874 he presented it at the first Impressionist exhibition.

Claude Monet, The Luncheon, 1868/69, detail, Städel Museum, Frankfurt am Main
Claude Monet, The Luncheon, 1868/69, X-ray, detail, Städel Museum, Frankfurt am Main

X-ray images reveal covered layers of paint and afford insights into the process of painting itself. The x-rays of “The Luncheon” for example show, that the woman by the window had been conceived seated as well as standing; in both cases she was looking out of the window. In the final version the artist decided to elevate the figure slightly and to direct her gaze into the room. Also Monet had initially placed two baguettes on the table instead of the loaf of bread. These changes to the composition prove that Monet had not finally conceived the composition; instead it developed during the process of painting.

Claude Monet, The Luncheon: decorative panel, ca. 1873, Musée d’Orsay, Paris


Again a dining table is placed in the foreground of the composition; however, this time Monet is taking the scene outside. The persons have already left the table and are leisurely strolling through the sunny garden. In comparison with “The Luncheon” they are receding into the background. Everything in the painting is subordinate to the mood of the moment.

In terms of subject, Monet systematically draws on “The Luncheon” simply presenting the same subject at another point in time. His “panneau decoratif” (decorative panel), which he calls his painting, makes do without a narrative. Instead the focus is on the atmosphere. Monet even dares placing an empty space at the centre of the painting – represented in shimmering colours.


On the surface of the water a hypnotising play of colour ensues. Gentle undulation distorts the reflections into vibrant formations of colour. They make it difficult for the human eye to focus. It was this in particular, which fascinated the Impressionists. The fleeting reflections on the water provided the perfect subject to evolve their painting technique.


Claude Monet, La Grenouillère, 1869, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, H. O. Havemeyer Collection, Bequest of H. O. Havemeyer

Neither the floating café, nor the bathers, but the reflections on the water were at the focus. The undulation captured in rough brushstrokes is at odds with the clear structure of the composition, where the boats and the jetty point towards the centre of the painting.

The building and the roughly outlined people can hardly be made out in the reflections on the surface of the water. The reflections seem to be independent from their surroundings.

In their spare time numerous Parisians flock out of town to relax in the countryside surrounding the villages on the outskirts. At the time the majority of city dwellers lived in flats with little daylight. The rush and the fast pace of the metropolis called for balance. A large part of society favoured travelling to bathing places.

They enjoyed activities such as rowing or sailing, pursuits, which had come to France from England in the 1840s. The Impressionists visited the bathing resort La Grenouillère by the Seine and sought inspiration from the leisure pursuits of the Parisians.


The wind is swirling the pattern of the flag, turning it into dancing brushstrokes in red, white and grey. In parts the primer of the canvas is visible through the rush of colour. At the upper edge, Monet left the flag unfinished – an attack on the traditional interpretation of art.

The sea is barely visible. It is the flying flag that makes the viewer intuit the murmur of the waves. Single figures with hats and parasols are leisurely promenading along the sea front at Trouville. To the right the Hôtel des Roches Noires reaches into the blue sky.

In June 1870 Monet had married his lover Camille Doncieux. Together with their son, they spent the summer in the popular holiday resort Trouville – however, not at this hotel, but in more modest accommodation. The peaceful atmosphere of the painting does not contain the slightest hint of the imminent Franco-German War.

Claude Monet, The Hôtel des Roches Noires, Trouville, 1870, Musée d’Orsay, Paris, Bequest of Jacques Laroche

On July 19, 1870 France declared war on Prussia. It was the consequence of a conflict regarding the Spanish succession to the throne. French troops soon had to accept harsh defeats. After Paris had been besieged for over four months, the capital surrendered. On January 18, 1871 William I. was declared German Emperor at the castle of Versailles. Shortly afterwards a bloody civil war ensued between government troops and militia of the socialist city council, the so-called commune in Paris. The Franco-Prussian War ended on May 10, 1871 with the peace of Frankfurt. France was levied with substantial reparation payments and had to yield Alsace-Lorraine to the German Reich. The bloody events barely featured in the works of the Impressionists. For the duration of the war, many artists had gone into exile. Monet had fled to London at the war’s outbreak and returned to France via the Netherlands in late 1871.

Jules Andrieu, Ruins of the Paris Commune, 1871. The Hôtel de Ville after the Fire, 4th arrondissement, Paris, 1871, Musée Carnavalet, Paris


Monet created two versions of the lively boulevard des Capucines. He presented one of them at the first Impressionist-exhibition in 1874.

The view of the blurry, unrecognisable figures provoked strong reactions. The critic Ernest Chesneau visited the exhibition and summarised his impression thus.

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Ernest Chesneau, 1874 2
Claude Monet, The Boulevard des Capucines, 1873/74, The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, Missouri, detail

In wintery conditions countless people are bustling along the boulevard des Capucines. Their painterly dissolved bodies are reminiscent of the shadows of movement in a blurry photograph. But the immobile items, such as trees and houses, too merge with this diffuse field of colour.

Monet painted the boulevard des Capucines from the second floor of the house at No. 35. The broad boulevards, which had recently been constructed, offered the Impressionists a new experience of seeing. The distance to the street offered an overview over what was going on on the one hand; on the other hand the blurring of the figures betrays that the detail is lost in the overall impression.

At the first exhibition of the Impressionists in 1874, 30 artists presented their works. The show took place at the former studio of the photographer Nadar on the boulevard des Capucines. Approximately 3500 visitors came to see the display of this new movement. The Impressionists succeeded with attracting attention and fuelled a debate on their work. Seven exhibitions followed. Five times Monet presented his art in this context.

The relationship of the Impressionists with the Salon was dichotomous. On the one hand several Impressionists exhibited their works repeatedly at the Salon, on the other hand the Impressionists rejected the traditionalist Salon painting, which adhered to the conservative rules of the academies. With their new idea on art hey sought independence and they increasingly looked at the growing art market.


Auguste Renoir, Woman with a Parasol in a Garden, 1875, Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid, detail

A dabbed flood of colours in a multitude of greens, reds, whites, blues and yellows. Renoir creates the impression that his figures are in a giant meadow with wild flowers. It is difficult to make out the two pedestrians. In fact the painting originates from the artist’s garden in Montmartre, an area in the North of Paris.

In the latter half of the 19th century a growing interest in optical phenomena established a close link of art and science. The art historian John Ruskin (1819–1900) coined the expression of the “innocent eye”, which was widely known at the time. His theory was founded on the notion that the human eye perceived the works in two-dimensional blots of colour. It was only through experience that the visual impression was translated into actual objects.

Hence the production of meaning was acquired. Different disciplines of science including chemistry, physics and psychology examined the issue. The Impressionists pursued the idea of the “innocent eye” and in their paintings reflected current studies on perception and the effect of colour.

He said he wished he had been born blind and then had suddenly gained his sight so that he could have begun to paint in this way without knowing what the objects were that he saw before him.

Lilla Cabot Perry on Claude Monet, 19273


Auguste Renoir, After the Luncheon, 1879, Städel Museum, Frankfurt am Main

A sunny day in spring. After lunch the two women and the man are sitting together contentedly. Their conversation paused for a moment. Everyone is following his or her own train of thought. While the lady with the violet on her hat is dreamily staring into the void, her companion is relishing in lighting his cigarette. The scene is plunged into a gentle, vibrating shimmer, the contours of the figures and objects are slightly blurred. Yet minute details are reflected, underscoring the momentariness of the scene. Renoir captures this idyll as though he took a photographic snap-shot.

In the 1840s the technique of photography quickly spread. It had a great influence on painting. On the one hand photographs were highly useful for an exact, scientific documentation, on the other hand the new medium was valued for its artistic merits. Photographers and artists entered into a lively dialogue, which also meant that they mutually influenced each other. It is likely that for their soft-focus representations the Impressionists took their cue from overexposed and thus blurry photographs. However, the Impressionists barely mentioned photography, although it had become a mass-phenomenon.

Gustave Eiffel, Photographed photographer, Fonds Gustave Eiffel, around 1890 – 1892, Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France


No matter where one turns, it is impossible to gaze out of the window unobstructed. Berthe Morisot built a complex web of figures and objects. The vertically stacked obstructions of the view form an abstract grid, sliding between the interior and the exterior.

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The artist is creating tension in a sophisticated way, directing the gaze into the depth of the painting via several layers. A man is peeking through a gap between window frame and fence. The succession of looks leads him outside on to the girl and the woman and finally to the boats in the distance.

The man’s gaze out of the window is the only connection of inside and outside. By placing the man inside and the women outside, Morisot is inverting the traditional role of the sexes, where the public realm was the space assigned to the male and the interior the space of the female.

Berthe Morisot, Eugène Manet on the Isle of Wight, 1875, Musée Marmottan Monet, Paris

Mr. Monet wanted to show us the various aspects of Saint-Lazare station with trains arriving and departing. Unfortunately the thick smoke exuded by the canvas prevented us from looking.

A critic of the third Impressionist-exhibition, 18774



Claude Monet, Exterior of Saint-Lazare Station (The Signal), 1877, Niedersächsisches Landesmuseum Hannover

A round traffic sign creates a barrier right at the centre of the painting. The area of Saint-Lazare station seems out of focus – as if perceived from a moving train. In addition the view is obscured by thick smoke billowing out of steam locomotives.

Individual shapes can barely be discerned behind a veil of smoke. Monet almost makes the objects disappear completely in the clouds. The specific materiality of the items becomes secondary. The focus lies on the location’s atmosphere.

In the mid-19th century Paris was being restructured and modernised by the urban planer Georges-Eugène Haussmann. From now on swathes of traffic up to 120 metres wide were cutting through the city, providing visual axes. Large stations were built and the railways were celebrated as miraculous feats of engineering. Far away places suddenly became accessible in a matter of a few hours. Paris was the traffic hub. The city had become a bustling metropolis.

From 1861 to 1881 its number of residents had nearly doubled. Paris was filled with anonymous busyness and was constantly changing. In response to the increasing consumption of its inhabitants large department stores were being built. In the middle of the century, gas lighting was established and in the 1880s electric lighting followed – by night Paris turned into a sea of light.


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Claude Monet, related by Georges Clemenceau, 1928 5
Claude Monet, Camille on her Deathbed , 1879, Musée d´Orsay, Paris, Bequest of Katia Granoff, detail

A painful moment for Monet: in 1879, following a serious illness, his wife Camille died at the young age of only 32 years. Fleeting brushstrokes depict her on her deathbed. Camille almost disappears behind a veil of shimmering hues of colour.

They say that Monet was taken aback by the way he painted her. At this emotional time he automatically distanced himself from what was happening and only observed the changing tones of colour; he followed the tragic scene with the painter’s “innocent eye”. The painterly aspect triumphs over the content.


Claude Monet, Vétheuil in the Fog, 1879, Musée Marmottan Monet, Paris

Wafts of mist shroud the village of Vétheuil, situated on a hill. There does not seem to be a top or a bottom to the painting, time and space are suspended. There are no picture planes hinting at either fore- or background. Subject and reflection cannot be distinguished.

In the 1870s Monet began to compose his canvasses applying colour in an even and rough manner, which dissolved any order of the elements represented, shifting the focus to the overall structure instead. In the interest of the general atmosphere the artist almost obscures the subject in his work “Vétheuil in the Fog”. The emphasis on the atmosphere is an important requisite for his later serial paintings.


Never did Monet work on a series as long as he did on Rouen Cathedral. From the window of a building opposite he painted the edifice from the same angle at different times of day: in cool fog, the warm midday sun and the gentle light of dawn.

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Monet mostly worked on several canvases at the same time. In every weather he took off with his easel and a suitcase with painting utensils. It is likely that he chose to paint the cathedral as its shape, texture and colour would not be altered in the course of the year. It was the weather alone, with its changing conditions of light and shade that would change the atmosphere.

In the studio Monet synchronised the paintings of his series. The artist refused to present or even sell just a single one of his paintings before he had completed the series. This is how important he considered the overall effect to be.

Claude Monet, Rouen Cathedral: The Portal, Morning Fog, 1893/94, Museum Folkwang, Essen
Claude Monet, Rouen Cathedral: The Portal, Morning Effect, 1893/94, Fondation Beyeler, Riehen/Basel, Sammlung Beyeler
Claude Monet, Rouen Cathedral: The Portal, 1893/94, Klassik Stiftung Weimar


What the original betrays

Bluish shadows are cast onto the road. By combining blue and violet hues with orange, Pissarro is creating a complementary contrast. Placing colours from the opposite side of the colour circle – as is the case with blue and orange – side-by-side, makes them appear stronger and more brilliant, an effect that was of great importance to Impressionist painting.

Camille Pissarro, The Rue de Gisors, Pontoise, Winter Effect, 1872, Private Collection, Courtesy David Nisinson

In their paintings the Impressionists paid careful attention to the phenomenon of colourful shadows. In daylight the scattered light from the sky sometimes adds a blue or violet tinge to shadows.

The artists observed that the reflections of light in the surroundings also affect the colour of the shadow. In their works they recorded what they saw. Numerous contemporaries were irritated by the colourful shadows in the Impressionists paintings.

A shadow is neither black nor white. It always has a colour. Nature only knows colour ...

Auguste Renoir, 19106



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Picture credits

Claude Monet: Die Straße von Chailly durch den Wald von Fontainebleau / The Chailly Road through the Forest of Fontainebleau / Le Pavé de Chailly dans la forêt de Fontainebleau, 1865
Oil on canvas, 97 x 130,5 cm, Ordrupgaard, Kopenhagen
Foto: Pernille Klemp
© Ordrupgaard, Copenhagen

Claude Monet: Pfirsichglas / Jar of Peaches / Bocal de pêches, ca. 1866
Oil on canvas, 55,5 x 46 cm, Galerie Neue Meister, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden
© Galerie Neue Meister, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden

Claude Monet: Das Mittagessen / The Luncheon / Le Déjeuner, 1868/69
Oil on canvas, 231,5 x 151 cm, Städel Museum, Frankfurt am Main
Foto: Städel Museum - ARTOTHEK - U. Edelmann
© Städel Museum, Frankfurt am Main

Claude Monet: Das Mittagessen / The Luncheon / Le Déjeuner, 1868/69, Röntgenaufnahme, Detail
Foto: Städel Museum, Frankfurt am Main
© Städel Museum, Frankfurt am Main

Claude Monet: Das Mittagessen: dekorative Tafel / The Luncheon: decorative panel / Le Déjeuner : panneau décoratif, ca. 1873
Oil on canvas, 160 x 201 cm, musée d’Orsay, Paris, Bequest of Gustave Caillebotte, 1894
Foto: bpk | RMN - Grand Palais | Patrice Schmidt
© Musée d'Orsay, legs de Gustave Caillebotte, 1894

Claude Monet: La Grenouillère, 1869
Oil on canvas, 74,6 x 99,7 cm, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, H. O. Havemeyer Collection, Donated by H. O. Havemeyer, 1929
Foto: bpk | The Metropolitan Museum of Art
© bpk | The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Claude Monet: Das Hôtel des Roches Noires in Trouville / The Hôtel des Roches Noires, Trouville / L’Hôtel des Roches Noires, à Trouville, 1870
Oil on canvas, 81 x 58 cm, musée d’Orsay, Paris, Donated by Jacques Laroche, 1947
Foto: bpk | RMN - Grand Palais | Hervé Lewandowski
© Musée d'Orsay, Paris, donation de Jacques Laroche, 1947

Claude Monet: Der Boulevard des Capucines / The Boulevard des Capucines / Le Boulevard des Capucines, 1873/74
Oil on canvas, 80,3 x 60,3 cm, The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, Missouri
Foto: Jamison Miller
© The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, Missouri

Auguste Renoir: Frau mit Sonnenschirm in einem Garten / Woman with a Parasol in a Garden / Femme à l’ombrelle dans un jardin, 1875
Oil on canvas, 54,5 x 65 cm, Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid
© Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid

Auguste Renoir: Nach dem Mittagessen / After the Luncheon / La Fin du déjeuner, 1879
Oil on canvas, 100,5 x 81,3 cm, Städel Museum, Frankfurt am Main
Foto: Städel Museum - ARTOTHEK
© Städel Museum, Frankfurt am Main

Berthe Morisot: Eugène Manet auf der Isle of Wight / Eugène Manet on the Isle of Wight / Eugène Manet à l’Île de Wight, 1875
Oil on canvas, 36 x 46 cm, Musée Marmottan Monet, Paris
Foto: Bridgeman Images
© Bridgeman Images

Claude Monet: Außerhalb des Bahnhofs Saint-Lazare (Das Signal) / Exterior of Saint-Lazare Station (The Signal) / La Gare Saint-Lazare de l’extérieur (Le Signal), 1877
Oil on canvas, 65,5 x 82 cm, Niedersächsisches Landesmuseum Hannover
Foto: Landesmuseum Hannover - ARTOTHEK
© Landesmuseum Hannover – ARTOTHEK

Claude Monet: Camille auf dem Totenbett / Camille on her Deathbed / Camille sur son lit de mort, 1879
Oil on canvas, 90 x 68 cm, musée d’Orsay, Paris, Donated by Katia Granoff, 1963
Foto: bpk | RMN - Grand Palais | Patrice Schmidt

Claude Monet: Vétheuil im Nebel / Vétheuil in the Fog / Vétheuil dans le brouillard, 1879
Oil on canvas, 60 x 71 cm, Musée Marmottan Monet, Paris
Foto: Bridgeman Images
© Bridgeman Images

Claude Monet: Die Kathedrale von Rouen: Das Portal / Rouen Cathedral: The Portal / La Cathédrale de Rouen: Le portail, 1893/94
Oil on canvas, 100 x 65 cm, Direktion Museen, Klassik Stiftung Weimar
Foto: Fotostudio Renno
© Klassik Stiftung Weimar, Museen

Claude Monet: Die Kathedrale von Rouen: Das Portal, Morgennebel / Rouen Cathedral: The Portal, Morning Fog / La Cathédrale de Rouen: Le portail, brouillard matinal, 1893/94
Oil on canvas, 101 x 66 cm, Museum Folkwang, Essen
Foto: Museum Folkwang, Essen

Claude Monet: Die Kathedrale von Rouen: Das Portal, Morgenstimmung / Rouen Cathedral: The Portal, Morning Effect / La Cathédrale de Rouen: Le portail, effet du matin, 1893/94
Oil on canvas, 110 x 73 cm, Fondation Beyeler, Riehen/Basel, Sammlung Beyeler
Foto: Robert Bayer, Basel
© Robert Bayer, Basel

Camille Pissarro: Die Rue de Gisors, Pontoise, im Winter / The Rue de Gisors, Pontoise, Winter Effect / La Rue de Gisors, Pontoise, effet d’hiver, 1872
Oil on canvas, 26,8 x 40,5 cm,
Private Collection, Courtesy David Nisinson


Cham: – „Madame! Es ist nicht ratsam, einzutreten.“ /„Madame, it is not advisable to enter!“ / – «Madame! Cela ne serait pas prudent. Retirez-vous! », 1877
Städel Museum, Frankfurt am Main, published in: Le Charivari, 16. April 1877, Foto: Städel Museum – ARTOTHEK
© Städel Museum, Frankfurt am Main


Jules Andrieu: Zerstörungen durch die Kommune von Paris, 1871. Das Hôtel de Ville nach dem Brandanschlag, 4. Arrondissement, Paris / Ruins of the Paris Commune, 1871. The Hôtel de Ville after the Fire, 4th arrondissement, Paris / Ruines de la Commune de Paris, 1871. L’Hôtel de Ville après l’incendie, 4ème arrondissement, Paris, 1871
Albumen print, 28,6 x 37,6 cm, musée Carnavalet, Paris

Gustave Popelin : Eine Studie im Park, Le Magnet / Study at the park, Le Magnet / Une étude dans le parc, Le Magnet, around 1890–1900
Albumen print, 11,6 x 16,6 cm
Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France
Foto: bpk | RMN - Grand Palais | Gustave Popelin

Gustave Eiffel: Fotografierter Fotograf, Fonds Gustave Eiffel / Photographed photographer, Fonds Gustave Eiffel / Photographe photographié, Fonds Gustave Eiffel, around 1890–1892
Monochrom, 5,5 x 7,3 cm, Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France
Foto: bpk | RMN - Grand Palais | Alexandre Gustave Eiffel


1 Bourget, Paul: Paradoxe sur la couleur, in : Ders., Études et portraits, Paris 1905, S. 273
Ger. transl. in : Susanne Weiß, Claude Monet. Ein distanzierter Blick auf Stadt und Land. Werke 1895–1889, Reimer, 1997, pp. 83 et seq.
Engl. transl. by: Kristine von Oehsen

2 Ger. transl. in : Susanne Weiß, Claude Monet. Ein distanzierter Blick auf Stadt und Land. Werke 1895–1889, Reimer, 1997, p.40
Engl. transl. in: Exhib.-Kat. The Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco, published by Charles Moffet: The New Painting. Impressionism 1874–1886, Oxford 1986, p. 130

3 Perry, Lilla Cabot, Reminiscenes of Claude Monet from 1998 to 1909, in: American Magazine of Art 18, Nb. 3, March 1927, pp. 119 - 126
Ger. transl. in : Susanne Weiß, Claude Monet. Ein distanzierter Blick auf Stadt und Land. Werke 1895–1889, Reimer, 1997, p.120

4 A. Descubes: „L’Exposition des impressionnistes“, in: Gazette des lettres, des sciences et des arts, Vol. 1, Nb. 12, 20.4.1877, pp. 185–188
Ger. transl. by: Nerina Santorius
Engl. transl. by: Kristine von Oehsen

5 Georges Clemenceau: Claude Monet. Betrachtungen und Erinnerungen eines Freundes, übersetzt von Hannah Szàsz [1929], published by Gottfried Boehm, Frankfurt am Main 1989, 20 et seq.
Ger. and Engl. transl. by: Kristine von Oehsen

6 John Rewald: Die Geschichte des Impressionismus. Schicksal und Werk der Maler einer großen Epoche der Kunst, Köln 2011, p. 140
Engl. transl. by: Kristine von Oehsen

Monet at the Städel Museum


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